CKD (chronic kidney disease) is a severe and complex disease with a very high prevalence of CV (cardiovascular) complications. CKD patients are exposed to haemodynamic disturbances in addition to severe metabolic abnormalities that lead to a specific form of arterial remodelling, which contributes to the development of CV disease. Arterial calcification is a major event in the arterial remodelling process and is strongly linked to mineral metabolism abnormalities associated with CKD. Arterial remodelling is not limited to arterial calcification and modifications in arterial wall composition are also observed. Activation of the RAS (renin–angiotensin system), ET-1 (endothelin-1), endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and ADMA (asymmetric ω-NG,NG-dimethylarginine), as well as the anti-aging molecule Klotho, are implicated in this process. The present review details the mechanisms involved in arterial calcification and arterial remodelling associated with CKD, and provides the clinical consequences of large and small artery stiffness and remodelling in CKD patients.

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