Owing to the major limitations of current antiviral therapies in HBV (hepatitis B virus) infection, there is a strong need for novel therapeutic approaches to this major health burden. Stimulation of the host's innate and adaptive immune responses in a way that results in the resolution of viral infection is a promising approach. A better understanding of the virus–host interaction in acute and chronic HBV infection revealed several possible novel targets for antiviral immunotherapy. In the present review, we will discuss the current state of the art in HBV immunology and illustrate how control of infection could be achieved by immunotherapeutic interventions.

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