Ninety-one years ago insulin was discovered, which was one of the most important medical discoveries in the past century, transforming the lives of millions of diabetic patients. Initially insulin was considered only important for rapid control of blood glucose by its action on a restricted number of tissues; however, it has now become clear that this hormone controls an array of cellular processes in many different tissues. The present review will focus on the role of insulin in the kidney in health and disease.

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