DeVan et al. [1] undertook a comprehensive cross-sectional study involving the independent variables of IFG (impaired fasting glucose) and exercise training status. In keeping with the effects of many other independent variables, including age [2,3], exercise [4], red wine [5] and cardiovascular disease [6], both FMD% [percentage FMD (flow-mediated dilation)] and Dbase (baseline artery diameter) were found to be different between the study samples. For example, Dbase was 0.46 mm larger in non-exercising older adults with IFG than the trained older adults with IFG, whereas FMD% was 3.6% higher in the latter sample.

Brachial FMD% is mathematically equivalent to the ratio of Dpeak (peak diameter) divided by Dbase, i.e. Dpeak/Dbase1, where ‘1’ is the power exponent assumed...