Development of reliable biomarkers for early clinical assessment of drug-induced cardiotoxicity could allow the detection of subclinical cardiac injury risk in vulnerable patients before irreversible damage occurs. Currently, it is difficult to predict who will develop drug-induced cardiotoxicity owing to lack of sensitivity and/or specificity of currently used diagnostics. miRNAs are mRNA regulators and they are currently being extensively profiled for use as biomarkers due to their specific tissue and disease expression signature profiles. Identification of cardiotoxicity-specific miRNA biomarkers could provide clinicians with a valuable tool to allow prognosis of patients at risk of cardiovascular injury, alteration of a treatment regime or the introduction of an adjunct therapy in order to increase the long-term survival rate of patients treated with cardiotoxic drugs.

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