miRNAs are regulators of gene expression in diverse biological and pathological courses in life. Their discovery may be considered one of the most important steps in the story of modern biology. miRNAs are packed within exosomes and released by cells for cellular communications; they are present in bodily fluids. Their study opens the way for understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms of many diseases; furthermore, as potential candidate biomarkers, they can be measured in bodily fluids for non-invasive monitoring of disease outcomes. The present review highlights recent advances in the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of primary and secondary glomerulonephritides such as IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerular sclerosis, lupus nephritis and diabetic nephropathy. The identification of reciprocal expression of miRNAs and their target genes provides the molecular basis for additional information on the pathogenetic mechanisms of kidney diseases. Finally, recent findings demonstrate that miRNAs can be considered as potential targets for novel drugs.

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