The identification and functional delineation of miRNAs (a class of small non-coding RNAs) have added a new layer of complexity to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity. Genome-wide association studies in conjunction with investigations in cellular and animal models, moreover, provide evidence that miRNAs are involved in psychiatric disorders. In the present review, we examine the current knowledge about the roles played by miRNAs in NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity and psychiatric disorders.

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