Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies.
Review Article| July 18 2016
Sex differences in the brain–an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes
*Institute for Preclinical Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
†Institute of Physiology, Medical School, University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia
Correspondence: Gregor Majdic (email email@example.com).
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Neza Grgurevic, Gregor Majdic; Sex differences in the brain–an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 September 2016; 130 (17): 1481–1497. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20160299
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