Energy balance is not a simple algebraic sum of energy expenditure and energy intake as often depicted in communications. Energy balance is a dynamic process and there exist reciprocal effects between food intake and energy expenditure. An important distinction is that of metabolic and behavioural components of energy expenditure. These components not only contribute to the energy budget directly, but also by influencing the energy intake side of the equation. It has recently been demonstrated that resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a potential driver of energy intake, and evidence is accumulating on the influence of physical activity (behavioural energy expenditure) on mechanisms of satiety and appetite control. These effects are associated with changes in leptin and insulin sensitivity, and in the plasma levels of gastrointestinal (GI) peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK). The influence of fat-free mass on energy expenditure and as a driver of energy intake directs attention to molecules emanating from skeletal tissue as potential appetite signals. Sedentariness (physical inactivity) is positively associated with adiposity and is proposed to be a source of overconsumption and appetite dysregulation. The molecular signals underlying these effects are not known but represent a target for research.
Review Article| August 08 2016
Energy balance, body composition, sedentariness and appetite regulation: pathways to obesity
*Academy of Sport and Physical Activity, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S10 2BP, U.K.
†Faculty of Medicine and Health, Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, U.K.
Correspondence: Mark Hopkins (email M.Hopkins@shu.ac.uk).
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Mark Hopkins, John E. Blundell; Energy balance, body composition, sedentariness and appetite regulation: pathways to obesity. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 September 2016; 130 (18): 1615–1628. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20160006
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