Preeclampsia (PE) is a hypertensive pregnancy disorder complicating up to 1–5% of pregnancies, and a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In recent years, observational studies have consistently shown that PE carries an increased risk for the mother to develop cardiovascular and renal disease later in life. Women with a history of PE experience a 2-fold increased risk of long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) and an approximate 5–12-fold increased risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Recognition of PE as a risk factor for renal disease and CVD allows identification of a young population of women at high risk of developing of cardiovascular and renal disease. For this reason, current guidelines recommend cardiovascular screening and treatment for formerly preeclamptic women. However, these recommendations are based on low levels of evidence due to a lack of studies on screening and prevention in formerly preeclamptic women. This review lists the incidence of premature CVD and ESRD observed after PE and outlines observed abnormalities that might contribute to the increased CVD risk with a focus on kidney-related disturbances. We discuss gaps in current knowledge to guide optimal screening and prevention strategies. We emphasize the need for research on mechanisms of late disease manifestations, and on effective screening and therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing the late disease burden in formerly preeclamptic women.

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