Immune deposits are often observed along the tubular basement membrane in patients with lupus nephritis, but the role of anti-dsDNA antibody (Ab) deposition on tubulointerstitial inflammation remains to be investigated. We examined the effect of human polyclonal anti-dsDNA Abs on inflammatory processes in cultured proximal renal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC, HK-2 cells) and their association with serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in patients. Binding of anti-dsDNA Abs to HK-2 cells was investigated by cellular ELISA, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 secretion, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and the effect of mycophenolic acid (MPA) were investigated by ELISAs and Western blot analysis. NZBWF1/J mice with active nephritis were randomized to receive either mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) (100 mg/kg per day) or vehicle for up to 12 weeks to study renal histopathology focusing on tubulointerstitial changes. Our results demonstrated that anti-dsDNA Abs bound to HK-2 cell surface and induced IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 secretion through distinct MAPK pathways. MPA inhibited anti-dsDNA Ab binding to HK-2 cells and suppressed apical and basolateral IL-6 and IL-8, but not MCP-1, secretion. Anti-dsDNA Ab level correlated with serum and tubulointerstitial expression of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1. MMF treatment in NZBWF1/J mice reduced anti-dsDNA Ab production and MAPK activation in the renal tubulointerstitium, together with decreased IL-6 and MCP-1 expression. Our data demonstrate that anti-dsDNA Abs contribute to inflammatory processes in the tubulointerstitium in lupus nephritis through their binding to proximal renal tubular epithelial cells and induction of pro-inflammatory mediators, and MPA ameliorates anti-dsDNA Ab induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in these cells.
Binding of anti-dsDNA antibodies to proximal tubular epithelial cells contributes to renal tubulointerstitial inflammation
Susan Yung, Claudia Y.C. Ng, Kin Yi Au, Kwok Fan Cheung, Qing Zhang, Chenzhu Zhang, Desmond Y.H. Yap, Mel K.M. Chau, Tak Mao Chan; Binding of anti-dsDNA antibodies to proximal tubular epithelial cells contributes to renal tubulointerstitial inflammation. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 2017; 131 (1): 49–67. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20160421
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