Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases cause vascular brain injury that can lead to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). VCI is the second most common neuropathology of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), accounting for up to one-third of the population risk. It is frequently present along with other age-related pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Multiple etiology dementia with both VCI and AD is the single most common cause of later life dementia. There are two main clinical syndromes of VCI: post-stroke VCI in which cognitive impairment is the immediate consequence of a recent stroke and VCI without recent stroke in which cognitive impairment is the result of covert vascular brain injury detected only on neuroimaging or neuropathology. VCI is a syndrome that can result from any cause of infarction, hemorrhage, large artery disease, cardioembolism, small vessel disease, or other cerebrovascular or cardiovascular diseases. Secondary prevention of further vascular brain injury may improve outcomes in VCI.
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Cover ImageThe accompanying caption is: Image demonstrates a 3D reconstruction of the neurovascular unit in a hippocampal artery in the mouse brain. For further details, see article by Nizari et al in this issue, pages 1207-1214. Image kindly provided by Cheryl Hawkes.Close Modal
Review Article| May 17 2017
Clinical presentations and epidemiology of vascular dementia
Eric E. Smith
1Room 2941, Health Sciences Centre, University of Calgary, 3330 University Dr NW, Calgary, AB Canada T2N 2T9
Correspondence: Eric E. Smith (email@example.com)
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Clin Sci (Lond) (2017) 131 (11): 1059–1068.
November 29 2016
December 27 2016
February 15 2017
Eric E. Smith; Clinical presentations and epidemiology of vascular dementia. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 June 2017; 131 (11): 1059–1068. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20160607
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