Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is the major neuropathological process contributing to numerous neurological diseases. Recently, emerging evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in the pathophysiology of a wide range of neurological diseases. Notably, there have been significant developments in understanding the biogenesis of miRNAs, their regulatory mechanisms, and their potential as effective biomarkers and therapies. In the present review, we summarize the recent literature that highlights the versatile roles played by miRNAs in glutamate receptor (GluR)-dependent neurological diseases. Based on the reported studies to date, modulation of miRNAs could emerge as a promising therapeutic target for a variety of neurological diseases that were discussed in this review.

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