Chronic kidney disease (CKD), affecting 10–12% of the world’s adult population, is associated with a considerably elevated risk of serious comorbidities, in particular, premature vascular disease and death. Although a wide spectrum of causative factors has been identified and/or suggested, there is still a large gap of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms and the complexity of the CKD phenotype. Epigenetic factors, which calibrate the genetic code, are emerging as important players in the CKD-associated pathophysiology. In this article, we review some of the current knowledge on epigenetic modifications and aspects on their role in the perturbed uraemic milieu, as well as the prospect of applying epigenotype-based diagnostics and preventive and therapeutic tools of clinical relevance to CKD patients. The practical realization of such a paradigm will require that researchers apply a holistic approach, including the full spectrum of the epigenetic landscape as well as the variability between and within tissues in the uraemic milieu.

You do not currently have access to this content.