It is widely recognized that oxygen-derived free radicals have a central role in both normal physiological function and the pathophysiology of disease [1,2]. Under normal physiological conditions, reactive oxygen species are formed via the metabolism of oxygen molecules leading to the production of reactive oxygen species that have important mechanistic roles in signalling across a wide array of cell types and tissues. Numerous cellular enzymes are key to the production of reactive oxygen species including the NADPH oxidase enzyme (NOX) that was first described in neutrophils and recognized for its role in free radical-mediated defence against pathogens [13]. The control of reactive oxygen species production is achieved through a balance of enzymes that produce the free radicals and those that scavenge and metabolize them. As is the case...

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