The relationship between gut dysbiosis and obesity is currently acknowledged to be a health topic which causes low-grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance and may damage the kidney. Organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) has been shown as a transporter responsible for renal handling of gut microbiota products which are involved in the progression of metabolic disorder. The present study investigated the effect of probiotic supplementation on kidney function, renal Oat3 function, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis in obese, insulin-resistant rats. After 12 weeks of being provided with either a normal or a high-fat diet (HF), rats were divided into normal diet (ND); ND treated with probiotics (NDL); HF; and HF treated with probiotic (HFL). Lactobacillus paracasei HII01 1 × 108 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml was administered to the rats daily by oral gavage for 12 weeks. Obese rats showed significant increases in serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS), plasma lipid profiles, and insulin resistance. Renal Oat 3 function was decreased along with kidney dysfunction in HF-fed rats. Obese rats also demonstrated the increases in inflammation, ER stress, apoptosis, and gluconeogenesis in the kidneys. These alterations were improved by Lactobacillus paracasei HII01 treatment. In conclusion, probiotic supplementation alleviated kidney inflammation, ER stress, and apoptosis, leading to improved kidney function and renal Oat3 function in obese rats. These benefits involve the attenuation of hyperlipidemia, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance. The present study also suggested the idea of remote sensing and signaling system between gut and kidney by which probiotic might facilitate renal handling of gut microbiota products through the improvement of Oat3 function.

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