The cerebrovasculature is a multicellular structure with varying rheological and permeability properties. The outer wall of the brain capillary endothelium is enclosed by pericytes and astrocyte end feet, anatomically assembled to guarantee barrier functions. We, here, focus on the pericyte modifications occurring in disease conditions, reviewing evidence supporting the interplay amongst pericytes, the endothelium, and glial cells in health and pathology. Deconstruction and reactivity of pericytes and glial cells around the capillary endothelium occur in response to traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disorders, impacting vascular permeability and participating in neuroinflammation. As this represents a growing field of research, addressing the multicellular reorganization occurring at the outer wall of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in response to an acute insult or a chronic disease could disclose novel disease mechanisms and therapeutic targets.

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