T-cell infiltration and the subsequent increased intracardial chronic inflammation play crucial roles in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). A77 1726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, has been reported to have powerful anti-inflammatory and T cell-inhibiting properties. However, the effect of A77 1726 on cardiac hypertrophy remains completely unknown. Herein, we found that A77 1726 treatment attenuated pressure overload or angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo, as well as agonist-induced hypertrophic response of cardiomyocytes in vitro. In addition, we showed that A77 1726 administration prevented induction of cardiac fibrosis by inhibiting cardiac fibroblast (CF) transformation into myofibroblast. Surprisingly, we found that the protective effect of A77 1726 was not dependent on its T lymphocyte-inhibiting property. A77 1726 suppressed the activation of protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway, and overexpression of constitutively active AKT completely abolished A77 1726-mediated cardioprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. Pretreatment with siRNA targetting Fyn (si Fyn) blunted the protective effect elicited by A77 1726 in vitro. More importantly, A77 1726 was capable of blocking pre-established cardiac hypertrophy in mice. In conclusion, A77 1726 attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis via inhibiting FYN/AKT signaling pathway.

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