The microbial-mammalian metabolic axis has become recognized as an important component governing the overall homeostatic balance of the mammalian host. Disruption of the state of homeostasis among the gut microbiota has been shown to be causally linked to the development of host metabolic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. This disruption is often referred to as gut dysbiosis. Gut dysbiosis leads to altered metabolic products derived from the microbiota and these in turn, typically shift the homeostatic metabolic balance of the host towards a low-grade chronic inflammation, a hallmark of metabolic syndrome. The primary objective of this review is to examine and discuss some very current research that has been done to study the effect of bacterial metabolites on host metabolism, sometimes referred to as microbiota-host co-metabolism. The metabolic conditions reviewed here include obesity, a known risk factor for all of the other metabolic conditions, as well as, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Only by further understanding the cause and result of gut dysbiosis will an adequate solution be found for metabolic disease, a viewpoint shared by many.

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