Cardiac fibrosis is important for wound healing, regeneration and producing the extracellular matrix (ECM) that provides the scaffold for cells. In pathological situations, fibroblasts are activated and remodel the ECM. In volume 133, issue 17 of Clinical Science, Yang et al. discovered that the miR-214-3p/NLRC5 axis is important for fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT) and ECM remodelling in a pressure overload model of fibrosis [Clin. Sci. (2019) 133(17), 1845–1856]. This discovery helps to explain the complicated regulation of cardiac fibrosis. It also underscores the need for more investigation into the mechanisms of cardiac fibrosis to develop better diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options in heart failure.

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