Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (ECRS) is a condition linked with type 2 inflammation, poor treatment outcomes, and high recurrence tendency. Although γδT cells have been reported to induce type 2 immune responses and eosinophilic infiltration in several diseases, their role in ECRS has not been fully explored. We aimed to evaluate the association of γδT cells with the type 2 inflammatory profiles in ECRS. Nasal tissue samples obtained from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) (51 eosinophilic and 48 non-eosinophilic), 50 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), and 58 control subjects were examined for γδT cells, inflammatory markers and eosinophils using HE, RT-qPCR, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry. In parallel, studies were also conducted in an ECRS murine model induced by anti-γδT cells neutralizing antibody administration. γδT cells expression was significantly increased in tissues from patients with ECRS compared with non-ECRS, CRSsNP and control subjects. Moreover, inflammatory markers including type 2 proinflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), GATA3, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and eotaxin levels were also increased in nasal tissues of patients with ECRS, and Vγ1+ γδT cells mRNA expression was positively correlated with type 2 cytokines, GATA3, and ECP. In the ECRS murine model, anti-Vγ1+ γδT antibody treatment reduced the infiltration of eosinophils and expression of type 2 cytokines, GATA3, and ECP in nasal mucosae. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that γδT cells play a crucial role in the type 2 inflammatory profiles and nasal tissue eosinophilic infiltration in patients with ECRS.

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