The de novo synthesis of serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) is augmented in human fetal membranes at parturition. However, its role in parturition remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether SAA1 was involved in the rupture of fetal membranes, a crucial event in parturition accompanied with extensive degradation of collagens. Results showed that SAA1 decreased both intracellular and extracellular COL1A1 and COL1A2 abundance, the two subunits of collagen I, without affecting their mRNA levels in human amnion fibroblasts. These reductions were completely blocked only with inhibition of both matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and autophagy. Consistently, SAA1 increased MMP-2/9 abundance and the markers for autophagic activation including autophagy related (ATG) 7 (ATG7) and the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 β (LC3B) II/I ratio with the formation of LC3 punctas and autophagic vacuoles in the fibroblasts. Moreover, the autophagic degradation of COL1A1/COL1A2 and activation of MMP-2/9 by SAA1 were blocked by inhibitors for the toll-like receptors 2/4 (TLR2/4) or NF-κB. Finally, reciprocal corresponding changes of SAA1 and collagen I were observed in the amnion following spontaneous rupture of membranes (ROM) at parturition. Conclusively, SAA1 may participate in membrane rupture at parturition by degradating collagen I via both autophagic and MMP pathways. These effects of SAA1 appear to be mediated by the TLR2/4 receptors and the NF-κB pathway.