Acute influenza virus infections are a global public health concern accounting for millions of illnesses worldwide ranging from mild to severe with, at time, severe complications. Once an individual is infected, the immune system is triggered in response to the pathogen. This immune response can be beneficial ultimately leading to the clearance of the viral infection and establishment of immune memory mechanisms. However, it can be detrimental by increasing susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections and resulting in permanent changes to the lung architecture, in the form of fibrotic sequelae. Here, we review influenza associated bacterial super-infection, the formation of T-cell memory, and persistent lung injury resulting from influenza infection.

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