The methylation of arginine residues by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) is a crucial post-translational modification for many biological processes, including DNA repair, RNA processing, and transduction of intra- and extracellular signaling. Previous studies have reported that PRMTs are extensively involved in various pathologic states, including cancer, inflammation, and oxidative stress reaction. However, the role of PRMTs has not been well described in kidney diseases. Recent studies have shown that aberrant function of PRMTs and its metabolic products—symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)—are involved in several renal pathological processes, including renal fibrosis, acute kidney injury (AKI), diabetic nephropathy (DN), hypertension, graft rejection and renal tumors. We aim in this review to elucidate the possible roles of PRMTs in normal renal function and various kidney diseases.