In the subacute Parkinson’s disease (PD) mice model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), injection of HMGB1 competitive inhibitor protein HMGB1 A box and the ethyl pyruvate (EP) that inhibit the release of HMGB1 from cells restored the number of dopaminergic neurons and TH+ fibers in the SN and striatum. Our data show that A box up-regulated CD200-CD200R signal of microglia inhibited the activation of microglia mediated by HMGB1, and the production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in vivo and in vitro mixed culture system. Microglia overexpressing CD200R produced less inflammatory chemokines and reduced the loss of TH+ neurons. In addition, HMGB1 A box decreased the level of CCL5 and significantly inhibited the infiltration of almost all T cells including Th17 and the proportion of Th17 in CD4+ T cells. In vitro MPP+ induced model and HMGB1-stimulated mesencephalic cell system activated microglia induced the differentiation of naïve T cells to Th17, and A box significantly inhibited this process. To sum up, our results show that HMGB1 A box targeting HMGB1, which effectively reduces the activation of microglia in MPTP PD model by restoring CD200-CD200R signal inhibit microglia mediated neuroinflammation and the differentiation of T cells to Th17.

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