Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) dysfunction is associated with vascular damage in cardiometabolic diseases. Although heart failure (HF)-induced endothelial dysfunction is associated with renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation, no data have correlated this syndrome with PVAT dysfunction. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether the hyperactivation of the RAS in PVAT participates in the vascular dysfunction observed in rats with HF after myocardial infarction surgery. Wire myograph studies were carried out in thoracic aorta rings in the presence and absence of PVAT. An anticontractile effect of PVAT was observed in the rings of the control rats in the presence (33%) or absence (11%) of endothelium. Moreover, this response was substantially reduced in animals with HF (5%), and acute type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1R) and type 2 angiotensin II receptor (AT2R) blockade restored the anticontractile effect of PVAT. In addition, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1) activity (26%) and angiotensin II levels (51%), as well as the AT1R and AT2R gene expression, were enhanced in the PVAT of rats with HF. Associated with these alterations, HF-induced lower nitric oxide bioavailability, oxidative stress and whitening of the PVAT, which suggests changes in the secretory function of this tissue. The ACE1/angiotensin II/AT1R and AT2R axes are involved in thoracic aorta PVAT dysfunction in rats with HF. These results suggest PVAT as a target in the pathophysiology of vascular dysfunction in HF and provide new perspectives for the treatment of this syndrome.