Abstract

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), a type of cytosolic enzyme, transiently translocates to the plasma membrane upon G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activation, and it also binds to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) to inhibit the activation of ERK. GRK2 deficiency in endothelial cells (ECs) leads to increased pro-inflammatory signaling and promotes recruitment of leukocytes to activated ECs. However, the role of GRK2 in regulating angiogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that GRK2 is a novel regulatory molecule on migration and tube formation of ECs, vessel sprouting ex vivo and angiogenesis in vivo. We identify that EP4/AC/cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated GRK2 translocation to cells membrane decreases the binding of GRK2 and ERK1/2 to inhibit ERK1/2 activation, which promotes prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-induced angiogenesis. GRK2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibits the increase in PGE2-induced HUVECs migration and tube formation. In vivo, PGE2 increases ECs sprouting from normal murine aortic segments and angiogenesis in mice, but not from GRK2-deficient ones, on Matrigel. Further research found that Lys220 and Ser685 of GRK2 play an important role in angiogenesis by regulating GRK2 translocation. Paeoniflorin-6′-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25), as a novel ester derivative of paeoniflorin (pae), has therapeutic potential for the treatment of adjuvant arthritis (AA) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), but the underlying mechanism of CP-25 on angiogenesis has not been elucidated. In our study, CP-25 inhibits the migration and tube formation of HUVECs, and angiogenesis in mice by down-regulating GRK2 translocation activation without affecting GRK2 total expression. Taken together, the present results revealed that CP-25 down-regulates EP4/AC/cAMP/PKA-mediated GRK2 translocation, restoring the inhibition of GRK2 for ERK1/2, thereby inhibiting PGE2-stimulated angiogenesis.

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