Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolic dysfunction is a fundamental core mechanism underlying CVDs. Previous studies generally focused on the roles of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in CVDs. However, a growing body of study has implied that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs: namely propionate, malonate, butyrate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate (2-HIBA), β-hydroxybutyrate, crotonate, succinate, and glutarate) and their cognate acylations (propionylation, malonylation, butyrylation, 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, β-hydroxybutyrylation, crotonylation, succinylation, and glutarylation) participate in CVDs. Here, we attempt to provide an overview landscape of the metabolic pattern of SCFAs in CVDs. Especially, we would focus on the SCFAs and newly identified acylations and their roles in CVDs, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure.