Abstract

The molecular mechanisms governing the secretion of the non-coding genome are poorly understood. We show herein that cyclin D1, the regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase that drives cell-cycle progression, governs the secretion and relative proportion of secreted non-coding RNA subtypes (miRNA, rRNA, tRNA, CDBox, scRNA, HAcaBox. scaRNA, piRNA) in human breast cancer. Cyclin D1 induced the secretion of miRNA governing the tumor immune response and oncogenic miRNAs. miR-21 and miR-93, which bind Toll-Like Receptor 8 to trigger a pro-metastatic inflammatory response, represented >85% of the cyclin D1-induced secreted miRNA transcripts. Furthermore, cyclin D1 regulated secretion of the P-element Induced WImpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) including piR-016658 and piR-016975 that governed stem cell expansion, and increased the abundance of the PIWI member of the Argonaute family, piwil2 in ERα positive breast cancer. The cyclin D1-mediated secretion of pro-tumorigenic immuno-miRs and piRNAs may contribute to tumor initiation and progression.

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