Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that has long been viewed predominately as an inflammatory condition. Accordingly, current therapeutic interventions focus primarily on resolving inflammation. However, the mainstay of asthma therapy neither fully improves lung function nor prevents disease exacerbations, suggesting involvement of other factors. An emerging concept now holds that airway remodeling, another major pathological feature of asthma, is as important as inflammation in asthma pathogenesis. Structural changes associated with asthma include disrupted epithelial integrity, subepithelial fibrosis, goblet cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, smooth muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia, and enhanced vascularity. These alterations are hypothesized to contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness, airway obstruction, airflow limitation, and progressive decline of lung function in asthmatic individuals. Consequently, targeting inflammation alone does not suffice to provide optimal clinical benefits. Here we review asthmatic airway remodeling, focusing on airway epithelium, which is critical to maintaining a healthy respiratory system, and is the primary defense against inhaled irritants. In asthma, airway epithelium is both a mediator and target of inflammation, manifesting remodeling and resulting obstruction among its downstream effects. We also highlight the potential benefits of therapeutically targeting airway structural alterations. Since pathological tissue remodeling is likewise observed in other injury- and inflammation-prone tissues and organs, our discussion may have implications beyond asthma and lung disease.

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