Abstract

Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of mortality globally, being responsible for an estimated 17 million deaths every year. Cancer is the second leading cause of death on a global level with roughly 9 million deaths per year being attributed to neoplasms. The two share multiple common risk factors such as obesity, poor physical exercise, older age, smoking and there exists rare monogenic hypertension syndromes. Hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and affects more than a billion people worldwide and may also be a risk factor for the development of certain types of cancer (e.g. renal cell carcinoma (RCC)). The interaction space of the two conditions becomes more complicated when the well-described hypertensive effect of certain antineoplastic drugs is considered along with the extensive amount of literature on the association of different classes of antihypertensive drugs with cancer risk/prevention. The cardiovascular risks associated with antineoplastic treatment calls for efficient management of relative adverse events and the development of practical strategies for efficient decision-making in the clinic. Pharmacogenetic interactions between cancer treatment and hypertension-related genes is not to be ruled out, but the evidence is not still ample to be incorporated in clinical practice. Precision Medicine has the potential to bridge the gap of knowledge regarding the full spectrum of interactions between cancer and hypertension (and cardiovascular disease) and provide novel solutions through the emerging field of cardio-oncology. In this review, we aimed to examine the bidirectional associations between cancer and hypertension including pharmacotherapy.

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