Abstract

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and mortality. Troublingly, hypertension is highly prevalent in patients with autoimmune renal disease and hastens renal functional decline. Although progress has been made over the past two decades in understanding the inflammatory contributions to essential hypertension more broadly, the mechanisms active in autoimmune-mediated renal diseases remain grossly understudied. This Review provides an overview of the pathogenesis of each of the major autoimmune diseases affecting the kidney that are associated with hypertension, and describes the current state of knowledge regarding hypertension in these diseases and their management. Specifically, discussion focuses on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Lupus Nephritis (LN), Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Nephropathy, Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy (IMN), Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis, and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP). A summary of disease-specific animal models found to exhibit hypertension is also included to highlight opportunities for much needed further investigation of underlying mechanisms and novel therapeutic approaches.

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