Objective: Regulated in development and DNA damage responses-1 (REDD1) is a conserved and ubiquitous protein, which is induced in response to multiple stimuli. However, the regulation, function and clinical relevance of REDD1 in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis are presently unknown.
Approach: Immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were performed to examine the levels of REDD1 in gastric samples from H. pylori-infected patients and mice. Gastric tissues from Redd1−/− and wildtype (WT, control) mice were examined for inflammation. Gastric epithelial cells (GECs), monocytes and T cells were isolated, stimulated and/or cultured for REDD1 regulation and functional assays.
Results: REDD1 was increased in gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected patients and mice. H. pylori induced GECs to express REDD1 via the phosphorylated cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) that activated MAPKp38 pathway to mediate NF-κB directly binding to REDD1 promoter. Human gastric REDD1 increased with the severity of gastritis, and mouse REDD1 from non-marrow chimera-derived cells promoted gastric inflammation that was characterized by the influx of MHCII+ monocytes. Importantly, gastric inflammation, MHCII+ monocyte infiltration, IL-23 and IL-17A were attenuated in Redd1−/− mice. Mechanistically, REDD1 in GECs regulated CXCL1 production, which attracted MHCII+ monocytes migration by CXCL1-CXCR2 axis. Then H. pylori induced MHCII+ monocytes to secrete IL-23, which favored IL-17A-producing CD4+ cell (Th17 cell) polarization, thereby contributing to the development of H. pylori-associated gastritis.
Conclusions: The present study identifies a novel regulatory network involving REDD1, which collectively exert a pro-inflammatory effect within gastric microenvironment. Efforts to inhibit this REDD1-dependent pathway may prove valuable strategies in treating of H. pylori-associated gastritis.