Rationale: The FDA-approved Dimethyl Fumarate (DMF) as an oral drug for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) treatment based on its immunomodulatory activities. However, it also caused severe adverse effects mainly related to the gastrointestinal system. Objective: Investigated the potential effects of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing DMF, administered by inhalation on the clinical signs, central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory response, and lung function changes in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Materials and methods: EAE was induced using MOG35–55 peptide in female C57BL/6J mice and the mice were treated via inhalation with DMF-encapsulated SLN (CTRL/SLN/DMF and EAE/SLN/DMF), empty SLN (CTRL/SLN and EAE/SLN), or saline solution (CTRL/saline and EAE/saline), every 72 h during 21 days. Results: After 21 days post-induction, EAE mice treated with DMF-loaded SLN, when compared with EAE/saline and EAE/SLN, showed decreased clinical score and weight loss, reduction in brain and spinal cord injury and inflammation, also related to the increased influx of Foxp3+ cells into the spinal cord and lung tissues. Moreover, our data revealed that EAE mice showed signs of respiratory disease, marked by increased vascular permeability, leukocyte influx, production of TNF-α and IL-17, perivascular and peribronchial inflammation, with pulmonary mechanical dysfunction associated with loss of respiratory volumes and elasticity, which DMF-encapsulated reverted in SLN nebulization. Conclusion: Our study suggests that inhalation of DMF-encapsulated SLN is an effective therapeutic protocol that reduces not only the CNS inflammatory process and disability progression, characteristic of EAE disease, but also protects mice from lung inflammation and pulmonary dysfunction.

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