With heart failure continuing to become more prevalent, investigating the mechanisms of heart injury and repair holds much incentive. In contrast with adult mammals, other organisms such as teleost fish, urodele amphibians, and even neonatal mammals are capable of robust cardiac regeneration to replenish lost or damaged myocardial tissue. Long-term high-resolution intravital imaging of the behaviors and interactions of different cardiac cell types in their native environment could yield unprecedented insights into heart regeneration and repair. However, this task remains challenging for the heart due to its rhythmic contraction and anatomical location. Here, we summarize recent advances in live imaging of heart regeneration and repair, discuss the advantages and limitations of current systems, and suggest future directions for novel imaging technology development.

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