The skeletal muscle is one of the largest organs in the mammalian body. Its remarkable ability to swiftly shift its substrate selection allows other organs like the brain to choose their preferred substrate first. Healthy skeletal muscle has a high level of metabolic flexibility, which is reduced in several metabolic diseases, including obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Skeletal muscle health is highly dependent on optimally functioning mitochondria that exist in a highly integrated network with the sarcoplasmic reticulum and sarcolemma. The three major mitochondrial processes: biogenesis, dynamics, and mitophagy, taken together, determine the quality of the mitochondrial network in the muscle. Since muscle health is primarily dependent on mitochondrial status, the mitochondrial processes are very tightly regulated in the skeletal muscle via transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, estrogen-related receptors, nuclear respiratory factor, and Transcription factor A, mitochondrial. Physiological stimuli that enhance muscle energy expenditure, like cold and exercise, also promote a healthy mitochondrial phenotype and muscle health. In contrast, conditions like metabolic disorders, muscle dystrophies, and aging impair the mitochondrial phenotype, which is associated with poor muscle health. Further, exercise training is known to improve muscle health in aged individuals or during the early stages of metabolic disorders. This might suggest that conditions enhancing mitochondrial health can promote muscle health. Therefore, in this review, we take a critical overview of current knowledge about skeletal muscle mitochondria and the regulation of their quality. Also, we have discussed the molecular derailments that happen during various pathophysiological conditions and whether it is an effect or a cause.

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