The rate of pregnancy can be affected by many factors in assisted reproductive technology (ART), and one of which is the quality of embryos. Therefore, selecting the embryos with high potential is crucial for the outcome. Fifteen spent blastocyst medium (SBM) samples were collected from 14 patients who received in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), seven from high-grade embryos and eight from low-grade embryos. Cell-free RNA (cf-RNA) profile of SBM samples were analyzed by RNA sequencing in the present study. It was found that a large amount of cf-RNA were released into SBM, including protein-coding genes (68.9%) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) (17.26%). Furthermore, a high correlation was observed between blastocyst genes and SBM genes. And the cf-mRNAs of SBM were highly fragmented, and coding sequence (CDS) and untranslated (UTR) regions were released equally. Two hundred and thirty-two differentially expressed genes were identified in high-grade SBM (hSBM) and low-grade SBM (lSBM), which could be potential biomarker in distinguishing the embryos with different quality as an alternative or supplementary approach for subjective morphology criteria. Hence, cf-RNAs sequencing revealed the characterization of circulating transcriptomes of embryos with different quality. Based on the results, the genes related to blastocyst quality were screened, including the genes closely related to translation, immune-signaling pathway, and amino acid metabolism. Overall, the present study showed the types of SBM cf-RNAs, and the integrated analysis of cf-RNAs profiling with morphology grading displayed its potential in predicting blastocyst quality. The present study provided valuable scientific basis for noninvasive embryo selection in ART by RNA-profiling analysis.

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