1. The administration of the polysaccharide carageenin through a catheter into the lungs of cats and rabbits has produced an inflammatory lesion confined to one lobe of a lung. The lesion consisted of an alveolar and interstitial infiltration with polymorphonuclear leucocytes and, subsequently, macrophages. There was no apparent damage to alveolar walls and no pleurisy. The rest of the lung remained normal.
2. In both conscious cats and anaesthetized rabbits there was an increased frequency of breathing dependent on an intact vagus nerve on the same side as the lesion. It was independent of changes in body temperature and was not due to hypoxaemia.
3. By using a direct current to the right cervical vagus nerve in the rabbits (with the left vagus nerve sectioned), it has been possible to block conduction in myelinated fibres; the non-myelinated fibres conduct normally. Studies with this differentially blocked nerve have shown that the increased frequency of breathing is dependent on activity in the non-myelinated vagal afferent fibres.