1. A comparison has been made of surgical and medical treatment in patients with arteriosclerotic renal artery stenosis and hypertension.

2. Immediate post-operative blood pressure was often normal, but frequently rose again later. After the sixth year only about 25% of surgical patients were normotensive without drug treatment.

3. Nephrectomy and vascular reconstruction gave similar results.

4. We presently believe that post-operative anticoagulant therapy is indicated in patients undergoing surgery for arteriosclerotic renal artery stenosis.

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