1. Intracellular electrolytes, and erythrocyte membrane adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, was studied in twenty patients after renal transplantation.

2. The mean ouabain-sensitive ATPase activity in the erythrocyte membranes of the transplant patients was 122 nmol of inorganic phosphorus (Pi) h−1 mg of tissue−1 (sem 14), compared with 62 nmol of Pi h−1 mg of tissue−1 (sem 8) in a group of paired, healthy controls.

3. The increase in ouabain-sensitive ATPase was most marked in the 4 months after transplantation. However, a significant increase in ouabain-sensitive ATPase persisted for more than 8 months after transplantation.

4. This increase in ouabain-sensitive ATPase was associated with a decrease in intracellular sodium in the erythrocytes of the transplant patients.

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