1. The acid-base state of arterial blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and the ventilatory response to CO2, were measured in twelve patients with liver disease. The CO2 response was also measured in eight goats before and after the experimental production of liver failure. Arterial Pco2 and pH, cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen were also measured in four of the goats while they breathed air and various CO2-enriched gas mixtures.

2. Liver failure was accompanied by a respiratory alkalosis in both the patients and in the goats. Decreased Pco2 and increased pH occurred in the cerebrospinal fluid and in the arterial blood of the patients.

3. The slope of the ventilatory response to CO2 was reduced when liver failure was severe, in patients and goats alike. In addition there was a reduction in the extrapolated Pco2 at zero ventilation, even when liver failure was mild.

4. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate were consistently reduced in the goats during liver failure. There was also less cerebral vasodilatation and a greater reduction in cerebral metabolism during experimental hypercapnia when these animals were in liver failure.

5. The decreases in the ventilatory and cerebral circulatory responsiveness to CO2 indicate that the brain is less well defended against hypercapnia in liver failure, and these changes are especially unfavourable as cerebral function deteriorates when the Pco2 is increased.

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