1. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out on data derived from single 24 h urine collections from 246 male idiopathic calcium stone-formers.
2. The daily urine volume and pH and the excretions of calcium, oxalate, phosphate, creatinine and magnesium were related to the time of year when the urine was collected, and the saturation of urine with calcium oxalate and octocalcium phosphate calculated for each month.
3. There were significant seasonal variations in the urinary excretion of calcium and oxalate, each showing a maximum during the summer months and a minimum in the winter. There was no significant seasonal variation in urinary pH, volume, creatinine, phosphate or magnesium.
4. There was a significant increase in the saturation of urine with calcium oxalate and a trend towards higher saturation levels of octo-calcium phosphate in the summer. These changes were dependent only on the seasonal variation in urinary calcium and oxalate and not on urine volume.
5. A retrospective study of the seasonal incidence of stone episodes among these 246 stone-formers showed that the rate of stone passage per month was 50% higher in the summer than in the winter. There was no significant seasonal variation in the incidence of stones removed surgically.