1. The participation of neural mechanisms in mediating the renin release induced by reduction of renal perfusion pressure was explored in anaesthetized cats by comparing renin release from the two kidneys, one acutely denervated and the other intact.
2. Suprarenal aortic stenosis of 10 min duration reduced renal perfusion pressure to 50 mmHg and halved blood flow to both kidneys, but caused a greater release of renin from the innervated kidney than from the contralateral denervated one (increments of 72 ± 17 and 29 ± 20 pmol/min respectively).
3. A study of the time-course of the response during aortic stenosis of 30 min duration showed early release of renin from the innervated kidney at a time (5 min) when little release occurred from the denervated one. In later samplings (15 and 30 min) the response of the innervated kidney levelled out at somewhat lower values, and that of the denervated organ progressively increased, but remained smaller than on the side with intact nerves.
4. There was no parallelism between renin release and renal vasomotor changes induced by aortic stenosis, as vasomotor changes were equal in the two kidneys and remained constant from beginning to end of stenosis. It is concluded that a significant part of the renin release induced by aortic stenosis is dependent on neural mechanisms: the neural differs from the non-neural component in being of more rapid onset and probably of shorter duration.