1. In twenty-three uraemic patients on regular dialysis, plasma renin activity and blood volume were measured before and after a single dialysis. Three groups were identified; the first had a low or normal plasma renin activity and a high or normal blood volume, the second had a high plasma renin activity and a low blood volume and the third had both variables above normal.
2. In spite of these differences, diastolic blood pressure before and after dialysis was the same in the three groups and multiple regression analyses failed to demonstrate any dependence of blood pressure on plasma renin activity, blood volume or body weight taken separately or together.
3. We conclude that other factors besides plasma renin activity and blood volume are important in maintaining arterial hypertension in terminal renal failure.