1. An investigation was carried out into the mechanism of unexplained hypotension in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. The cardiac output and peripheral resistance were compared in normotensive and hypotensive patients. In addition, the serum concentration of the false neurotransmitter octopamine and the pressor response to noradrenaline, and to the indirectly acting sympathomimetic agent tyramine, were measured in hypotensive and normotensive patients with fulminant hepatic failure and in healthy subjects.
2. The cardiac output and the peripheral resistance were decreased in the hypotensive patients, and their mean heart rate was slower than in the normotensive patients. Although the serum octopamine concentration was significantly elevated in the patients compared with the control subjects, the highest octopamine concentrations were unexpectedly found in the normotensive patients and a significant positive correlation could be demonstrated between the resting blood pressure and the serum octopamine concentration. The pressor response to tyramine and noradrenaline were similar in the hypotensive patients, the normotensive patients and control subjects.
3. These results suggest that neither increased serum concentrations of the false neurotransmitter octopamine, nor end-organ insensitivity to released noradrenaline are responsible for the hypotension. A more likely explanation is toxic depression of the vasomotor centre. The opening of peripheral arteriovenous shunts, possibly as a result of endotoxaemia, might be an additional factor.