1. The splanchnic—hepatic metabolism of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), ketone bodies and oxygen were investigated in five normal men and six juvenile diabetic subjects at rest and during exercise after an overnight fast.
2. A linear relationship was found between load (arterial concentration multiplied by hepatic blood flow) and splanchnic—hepatic uptake of lactate, pyruvate, glycerol and NEFA. The uptake of alanine was highly sensitive to load, but was also regulated by the concentration of hepatic venous glucagon. The uptake of pyruvate was high in exercising diabetic subjects, who had a high lactate/pyruvate concentration ratio in hepatic venous blood.
3. The rate of uptake of the total measured gluconeogenic precursors was significantly higher in the diabetic group at a given load.
4. The rate of ketogenesis was linearly related to the NEFA load in both groups; however, the rate of ketogenesis was twofold at a given load in the diabetic group. The highest rates of ketogenesis were found coincident with the highest concentrations of glucagon in hepatic venous blood.
5. The observed antiketogenic effect of exercise was due to a decreased load of NEFA, mainly caused by a decrease in the hepatic blood flow.