1. Sar1-Ala8-Angiotensin II (an angiotensin antagonist) was infused in rats during the development and maintenance of renal hypertension produced by aortic ligation between renal arteries.
2. In the early phase (5 and 12 days after ligation), infusion of the antagonist markedly decreased blood pressure although it did not reach normal pressures. Later (day 40) only a modest decrease in blood pressure was noted.
3. Removal of the small left kidney always decreased the blood pressure to normal pressures.
4. It is concluded that the renin—angiotensin system is the major pressor component in the initiation of this hypertension. Later, other factors of renal origin assume a pressor function.