1. The role of vasopressin in blood pressure control and in the pathogenesis of one-kidney Goldblatt hypertension in the conscious dog was investigated.
2. Infusion of synthetic arginine vasopressin to elevate plasma levels approximately five-fold caused bradycardia in normal dogs and increase in mean arterial blood pressure in dogs with pharmacological autonomic blockade.
3. A similar degree of elevation of plasma vasopressin concentration was observed after mild non-hypotensive haemorrhage.
4. Renal artery constriction in unilaterally-nephrectomized dogs caused a rise in plasma renin activity and only a doubling of plasma vasopressin concentration, but a marked rise in mean arterial blood pressure.
5. Vasopressin may play a role in normal cardiovascular homeostatic responses, but its role in the pathogenesis of this form of hypertension is unlikely to be significant.