1. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral pindolol were determined in 24 hypertensive patients with normal or impaired renal function.
2. In patients with normal renal function, the total clearance of the drug was the sum of both the renal and non-renal clearances in equal parts. The non-renal clearance was found to equal the hepatic clearance directly measured from the hepatic extraction ratio and hepatic blood flow.
3. Compared with patients with normal renal function, patients with chronic renal failure exhibited (i) unchanged transfer rate constants and distribution volumes, (ii) decreased total body clearance with decreased renal clearance and unchanged non-renal clearance.
4. Analysis of data obtained after oral administration of the drug by the Loo—Riegelman method showed that the pindolol absorption kinetic was non-linear. Compared with patients with normal renal function, patients with chronic renal failure exhibited (i) a significantly decreased fraction of dose effectively absorbed, (ii) an increased initial rate of absorption. The initial rate of absorption was inversely correlated with creatinine clearance.
5. The study provided evidence that in patients with renal insufficiency, (i) no increase in the metabolism of the drug accompanied the decrease in renal function, and (ii) decreased bio-availability was associated with a reduced fraction of the dose effectively absorbed and an increased rate of absorption.