1. Almost all the factors that may cause a rise in blood pressure are, in turn, influenced by the increase in blood pressure per se. Thus any primary involvement of one or more of these factors in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension must be evaluated before or during the development of hypertension.

2. Young normotensive subjects both of whose parents are hypertensive have a much higher probability of developing hypertension than those whose parents are both normotensive.

3. The following measurements were made in 56 subjects of the first group (both parents hypertensive) and 35 of the second group (both parents normotensive), matched for age, sex and body surface area: renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate, using p-aminohippurate and inulin clearance; 24 h urinary excretion of aldosterone, protein and electrolytes; plasma renin activity; plasma volume. Plasma catecholamines and cardiac index were also measured in 26 subjects of the first group and 25 subjects of the second group using a radioenzymic method and echocardiography.

4. All these factors were similar in the two groups except that renal plasma flow was higher in the first group (767·2 ± 30 versus 650·7 ± 17 ml/min, P < 0·01). Plasma renin activity tended to be lower in subjects with a higher renal plasma flow, but there was no significant negative correlation between the two factors.

5. The possibility that the higher renal plasma flow in subjects with a high probability of developing hypertension is a compensatory mechanism for a primary intrarenal defect is discussed.

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